To face these challenges, companies need to recognize, evolve and use effective market research. They have to test possible disruptive technologies before they overtake the customary sustaining technology (Pinchot & Pellman 1999:245). Even after adopting this sudden change, managers should leave room for malfunction and improvement, and suggest top hierarchy and bureaucracy to set suitable environment for free pursuit of creative ideas.
The best example of disruptive technology is the invention of steam ships, they were not reliable in the beginning to support trans-Atlantic travel. Breaking down and blowing up were their major faults in long distance travel. Still the investing companies found a niche of short distance transport in lakes and rivers, and they have a benefit of moving against the wind and in wind less days. In the mean time, technology has improved and soon steamships were able to travel across Atlantic, and were able to replace the sailing ships completely.
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