Sample Essay

Although HRT has been used for a long time now, there are many concerns regarding its safety. This is because estrogen hormone replacement has been associated with vaginal bleeding, exacerbation of migraines, increased risk of breast and uterine cancer, coronary artery disease and thrombosis (Investigators, 2002). Thus it is contraindicated in people with CAD, recent venous thrombosis, liver disease and unexplained vaginal bleeding.

Due to all these risks associated with estrogen hormone replacement therapy, various different forms and types of hormone replacement therapies have been tried to overcome these problems. Several forms of HRT are available for systemic (oral, injectable, transdermal and nasal) and local use (vaginal rings, vaginal creams and slow releasing tablets).

Nowadays, Estriol (a less potent estrogen) is used in HRT as it reduces menopausal symptoms and is much safer than more potent estrogens as it does not increase the risk of endometrial and breast cancer (Takahashi, 2000) (Melamed, 1997) (Weiderpass, 1999). Other forms of estrogen apart from oral estrogen like transdermal pathches and intravaginal creams, gels and rings have been used to reduce the side effects and risks associated with HRT.

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