Osteoporosis is a very common, chronic health problem and an area of concern in U.S. It is a bone disease in which bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced and there is a higher risk of fractures (Wactawski-Wende 198). The identified risk factors for osteoporosis are advancing age, female gender (especially postmenopausal), family history, calcium and vitamin D deficiency, physical inactivity, certain medications (steroids, thyroxin, antiepileptics) and chronic diseases (Wactawski-Wende 198).
It has been noted that osteoporosis can lead to alveolar bone loss and periodontal disease as they have similar risk factors. Although studies regarding osteoporosis and alveolar bone loss have been ongoing for a long time, the association between the two is yet unclear. This is because very few prospective studies have been carried out which specifically focus on this topic and they all have their own limitations (small sample size, various confounding factors, etc).
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