Jonas, B. S. (2000). Symptoms of Depression as a Prospective Risk Factor for Stroke. Psychosomatic Medicine , 62, 463-471.
This is a prospective study which was conducted on a cohort of 6095 patients from all ethnicities. The follow up period of this study ranged from 16 to 22 years.
The diagnosis of depression at baseline was made by self reported symptoms and all the confounding factors like age, gender, comorbid diseases, physical activity, smoking, cholesterol level, etc, were taken into consideration. In the data analysis, adjustment for all these factors was made and it was found that a significant association existed between depression and stroke incidence in all ethnicities. The relative risk for stroke was much higher in black individuals as compared to whites. This shows that association of depression with stroke is much stronger in blacks. This study is reliable and widely applicable. This clearly shows that depressed individuals are at a higher risk of developing stroke. Thus, high risk individuals should be screened for depression to reduce the incidence of stroke.
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