Nowadays, several models are used for explanation and treatment of abnormal thinking and functioning. These include biological model (physical processes like neuroanatomy and neurotransmitters affect behavior), psychodynamic model (repressed emotions and past experiences lead to abnormal behavior), behavioral model (outside behavior and reactions are responsible for abnormal behavior), cognitive model (emphasizes on the way of thinking which leads to abnormal behavior), human-existential model (choices and values play a role in human behavior) and socio-cultural model (society and culture affect human behavior).
This is a dominant model in our society today. It takes a medical perspective and is based on the assumption that abnormal behavior and functioning is an illness which has biological causes and is brought about by malfunctioning of parts of the human body, especially brain (Comer, 2005). In other words, behavior becomes abnormal because something has gone wrong with the brain.
Brain is made up of billions of neurons and glial cells and they maintain different body functions. Abnormalities of these brain cells in different parts of the brain can lead to various abnormalities. For e.g. loss of neurons in the basal ganglia can lead to Huntington’s disease (abnormal body movements, thinking and behavior).
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