MRSA is a strain of staphylococcal bacteria which is multi-drug resistant and the infections caused by MRSA are difficult to treat. MRSA is an important entity in both community and hospital acquired infections. Over time, the rate of MRSA infections has increased and therefore there is a general concern amongst healthcare professionals to control the spread of this infection.
Initially, in the early 1960’s MRSA infections were only limited to Europe and Asia but in the past two decades newer strains of MRSA have emerged which are resistant to multiple antibiotics and the infection has now become widespread in many different parts of the world (Casewell, 1986). MRSA was well-known to cause hospital acquired or nosocomial infections but in the past few years community acquired MRSA infections have also become very common (Cookson, 2000).
It has been reported that 32% of U.S. population is colonized with Staph. Aureus and 0.8% by MRSA (Kuehnert, 2006). The proportion of nosocomial MRSA infections has also increased drastically from 2% in 1974 to 64% in 2004 in U.S. (Klevens, 2006). Similarly, 6.9% of MRSA prevalence was seen in New Zealand in 2001 (ESR. Antibiotic resistance, 2001). Now the proportion of multiresistant MRSA has also increased in New Zealand from less than 20% in 1990s to more than 40% in 2000-01 (ESR. Antibiotic resistance, 2001).
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