Since MRSA is transmitted by close contact, outbreaks are usually seen in schools, army, dormitories, prisoners, team players, etc. There are certain risk factors which have been identified for acquiring MRSA infections. These include immunocompromised patients (HIV, infants), diabetics, hospitalized patients, surgical patients, health care workers, etc.
There are number of ways to prevent the spread of MRSA infections. The first important step of prevention is effective screening. Patients should be screened for MRSA upon hospital admission by taking nasal swab, perineal swab, swab from the site of infection, tracheostomy, cannula and catheter and urine sample (if catheter is in place). Three sets of screening swab should be taken for patients who have been infected by MRSA previously and they should also be kept in contact isolation. Patients who are found to be MRSA- positive on screening test should be isolated and decolonized. The rooms and accessories of all these patients should be cleaned and sanitized properly and all the equipment and surgical instruments used on these patients should be strictly handled with care and decontaminated before using on other patients. Whenever examining these patients, gloves, gown and masks should be worn. All MRSA positive patients should be properly labeled so that all the health care professionals, working staff and visitors are aware of the risk and take all precautionary measures.
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