In 1686, the professor of anatomy formBologna, Marcello Malphigi identified the unique riges and patterns on the foremost layer of skin. However he was unable to provide any information about the use of these marks as an identification tool for humans. In 1823, Purkinji identified the 9 fingerprint designs in his thesis. Hershel in 1856 was the pioneer who made use of the finger prints as an authority on contracts. Dr Henry Faulds in 1880 was the person however who was able to identify the presence of finger prints on ancient pottery which was dug up by archeologists. This revealed useful information about the characteristics of the ancient civilizations.
Initially however finger prints were usually taken on wax, with paint as well as with certain oils in order to establish authority of a binding contract. Mostly the uneducated were required to make finger prints while the educated signed and the privileged sealed with their coat of arms of emblems. However in the earthy twentieth century finger printing was being used by store managers and business men to authorize their contracts in order to make sure the partners of the contract dud not repudiate on their terms. “In 1891, Juan Vucetich, an Argentine Police Official, began the first fingerprint files based on Galton pattern types. At first, Vucetich included the Bertillon System with the files. In 1892, Juan Vucetich made the first criminal fingerprint identification. He was able to identify a woman by the name of Rojas, who had murdered her two sons, and cut her own throat in an attempt to place blame on another. Her bloody print was left on a door post, proving her identity as the murderer.” (‘Fingerprinting History’) Since then the technology and the method of fingerprinting has been widely used by forensic investigators to identify the victims and the perpetrators of crime.
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