A research conducted by Hofstede on the identification of organization subcultures depicted that it is possible for multiple subcultures to exist in an organization. “The dendrogram showed that within the company there were three distinct subcultures: a professional subculture, an administrative subculture, and a customer interface subculture.” (Hofstede, 2002) Similarly another research undertaken by Sackmann (1992) also explored the concept of organization having subcultures and the research depicted that subcultures can exist in regards to the different kinds of cultural knowledge that exist in the organization and the cultural overlay in place.
“Although organizations are often said to have cultures, it is perhaps more accurate to conceive of organizations as collections of subcultures.” (Maanen and Barley, 1983) The organizational subcultures are different from the organizational culture itself. Even through they combine together to form the organizational culture, and share similarities with the organizational culture in terms of the ideologies and the sets of cultural forms, they differ as well specially in terms of their enhancement or deviation of certain characteristics of the core organizational culture. “The notion that organizations may have specific cultures is found sprinkled in a vast array of publications on strategy and business policy, on organizational behavior and theory” (Allaire and Firsirotu, 1984). The subcultures in an organizational setting develop usually in informal groups in the form of coalitions, while in the formal groups they can develop in the form of departmental and management interactions. Aside from this subcultures in an organization can be based off the demographic characteristics of the human resource in the organization, making way of a diverse metropolitan organizational culture. Such subcultures can be defined in terms of the age, sex and ethnicities that can provide significant source of influence for the development of more subcultures in an organization.
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